Total Pageviews

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Akar dan bunga..Leafless orchids


          Spesis orkid adalah antara spesis tumbuhan berbunga yang berbagai rupa, bukan setakat bunganya yang bermacam-macam bentuk dan warna tetapi juga dari segi pokoknya pun dah pelbagai.. Dalam banyak-banyak tu ada juga yang hanya akar sahaja yang nampak, daun tiada..tiba-tiba berbunga..memang menarik..Selalu yang sering kita tengok di sebelah rantau sini ialah spesis Chilochista, tetapi rupanya ada banyak lagi spesis yang kita kurang didedahkan..ada yang memang terliur jugak tengok..
                       
           Orkid jenis ini terbahagi kepada 4 

           1.      Tidak berdaun
           2.      Bermusim (daun gugur pada masa tertentu)
           3.      Orkid tanah (daun gugur pada masa tertentu)
           4.      Orkid safrofit
         
         Tetapi yang saya akan fokuskan ialah orkid tidak berdaun dari jenis epifit..iaitu yang menumpang di atas tumbuhan lain..Semua jenis orkid ini tumbuh di kawasan tropika di seluruh dunia.
          
         Di antara Orkid epifit tidak berdaun ini mempunyai dua jenis iaitu pertama, yang memang tidak berdaun, daunnya menyusut dan hanya kelihatan seperti sisik-sisik kecil. Akarnya yang mengambil alih tugas daun menjalankan fotosintesis.. Kedua, yang mempunyai daun sementara ( biasanya bersaiz kecil dan bilangannya  sedikit), dan akan gugur pada masa tertentu.. Contohnya spesis asia pasifik seperti Chilochista dan Kingidium. Hampir kesemua orkid tidak berdaun ini daripada keluarga Vanda.
                                                            
        
        Orchid is a flowering plants that comes in a variety of forms, not just the flowers but also for the plants itself. Within so many genus, tribes and sub-tribes, one of the most unique is the leafless types. Here in South East Asia the most commonly seen is Chilochista..apparently there are more species that are not so common or very seldom seen and some of it are really nice..

      There are four major classifications of leafless orchids :

           1.      Leafless epiphytes
           2.      Deciduous epiphytes (seasonally leafless)
           3.      Deciduous epiphytes (seasonally leafless)
           4.      Saphrophytes (not in cultivation)

       The leafless epiphytes are the main focus here. Leafless epiphytes are found in tropical regions around the world. While all ot the listed genera are described leafless, there are actually two major growth patterns. Some are truly leafless orchids, since they live entire lives without leaves. Their vestigial leaves have degenerated into small, scale like structurue called bracts. These have the entire phosynthetic process taking place in the green roots..which are specially adapted. The other genera have ephemeral leaves that are soon shed. This is specially true of some Asia Pacific genera such as Chilochista and Kingidium. Almost all of the leafless orchids are in vanda tribe.

And here are the species


1. Campylocentrum

 Campylocentrum Sp. Brazil

This genus of 96 species is found from Florida, the carribean, central America and South America. Not All members are leafless.


2. Chilochista

 Chilochista lunifera

The genus contains 23 species and is found from India and southern Asia into the island of the Pacific and Australia. Plants may have ephemeral leaves especially during summer growth..


3. Dendrophylax

 Dendrophylax lindenii

This genus of 11 species is found only in the Carribean. The latest research indicates that Polyrrhiza should be included in this genus.



4. Harrisella
 Harisella porrecta

This genus of four species is found in florida, Jamaica and cuba. DNA studies may relegate it into Campylocentrum or a Dendrophylax.


5. Kingidium

 Kingidium braceanum

This genus of ten species containing two subgenera is found in South EastAsia and it also was placed in Phalaenopsis and doritis at various times. The first subgenera has seven species and some taxonomists place it into the subgenus Aphyllae of Phalaenopsis. These are the leafless Kingidium. Growers report that some species in this genera are more of a deciduous nature only losing their leaves under stress or drought. Under the more benign conditions of cultivation, plants can retain their leaves year round. The other section is more closely related to Doritis and is placed in Phalaenopsis, subgenus Phalaenopsis, section deliciosae. The Genus Kingidium was added to Phalaenopsis


6. Microcoelia


Microcoelia stolzii

This genus contains 39 species and is found from Madagascar through tropical Africa. Gussonea is an older name for Solenangis and Microcoelia, sometimes still seen in trade. There are two major types of habitat, open thickets and deep forest.


7. Microtatorchis

 Microtatorchis oreophila

Found in the Pacific islands with a center of distribution in New Guinea, not all of the 16 species are leafless.


8. Solenangis

 Solenangis aphylla

This genus contains 39 species and is found from Madagascar through tropical Africa. Gussonea is an older name for Solenangis and Microcoelia, sometimes still seen in trade. There are two major types of habitat, open thickets and deep forest. Microtatorchis: Found in the Pacific islands with a center of distribution in New Guinea, not all of the 16 species are leafless.


9. Polyrrhiza

 Polyrrhiza funalis
 

Also known as Polyradicion, this genus has three to five species and is found in Florida and the Caribbean. All species are synonymous with Dendrophylax species, and initial DNA studies include them back into Dendrophylax.


10. Taeniophyllum

 Taeniophyllum obtusum

This genus of 218 species is found from India to Australia, and the Pacific islands in between. There are probably many duplicates, but further research will have to be done. There is also a single emigrant to Africa, T. coxii.

 
11. Vanilla

 Vanilla aphylla

This genus contains 186 species and is pan-tropical, found in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific islands. However, not all species are leafless. Some of the leafless species are aphylla, barbellata, decaryana, and dilloniana.


12. Encheiridion

This genus is found only in Africa and is closely related to Mocrocoelia. Differing sources list it as having one to three species. (no picture)


13. Others

 Mystacidium gracile

Additionally, there are some other species which are reported to be leafless, such as Mystacidium gracile. However, Mystacidium gracile has leaves, but sheds them when stressed similar to leafless Phalaenopsis.


         Well thats about it..maybe in the future there will be more of the leafless orchid species being discovered. Such a unique plants indeed!

 
"The love of flowers is really the best teacher
of how to grow and understand them."
-  Max Schling

1 comment:

  1. sebuah ulasan yang unik dan menarik sob

    ReplyDelete